Fort Mitchell (1Ru102), a frontier fort in East Alabama, was built during the First Creek Indian War in 1813 and occupied until 1840, four years after Indian Removal. In spite of its historical importance, information concerning daily life and, more specifically, foodways of soldiers and Lower Creeks is scarce. Archaeological material recovered from 1Ru102 has recently been analyzed. Archaeobotanical data obtained from 15 features are presented, and inferences are made about potential utilization of wild and domesticated plants by Georgia Militia (1st Fort), United States soldiers (2nd Fort), and Creek Indians (both forts) at Fort Mitchell. Two specific questions about the dietary use of plants recovered at 1Ru102 are explored. First, to what extent, if any, did soldiers supplement their rations with local foods? Second, what plants potentially contributed to soldier and Creek Indian diet at Fort Mitchell? Eleven economic plant species were identified, and it is suggested that these plants likely contributed to soldier and Creek diet. This analysis indicates that the most important food plant groups were domesticates (maize, peach), mast (walnut, hickory, and oak.), and fleshy fruits (plums/cherries, hackberry, grape, maypop.). Minimal botanical information is available for multicomponent historic sites—especially forts—in Alabama, and this archaeobotanical analysis contributes information to this neglected area of interest.