Type of Document Dissertation Author Kregar, Sandra Author's Email Address email@example.com URN etd-04122011-200120 Title The Relative Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback Types in Computer-assisted Language Learning Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Modern Languages, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Michael Leeser Committee Chair Gretchen Sunderman Committee Member Lara Reglero Committee Member Michelle Kazmer University Representative Keywords
- Computer-assisted Language Learning
- Second Language Acquisition
Date of Defense 2011-04-01 Availability unrestricted AbstractFor several decades, research in instructed second language acquisition (SLA) has focused on identifying the facilitative role that interaction plays in second language (L2) development (e.g., Gass, 1997; Long, 1996; Pica, 1996). Within this area of interest, a considerable amount of attention has been directed toward the feedback that learners receive though the interactional processes and how this information may serve to modify their interlanguage system. In fact, through a detailed analysis of the literature, Russell and Spada (2006) found 56 studies that examined the effects of corrective feedback (CF) on L2 learning.
However, few studies have explored the effects of different types of corrective feedback on learner performance or the conditions in which feedback is most effective. These aspects of feedback are of particular importance in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environment where the L2 learners do not receive individualized feedback tailored to their output nor do they have the opportunity to seek further clarification regarding their incorrect language usage. Not only do few studies exist that have explored feedback in CALL (Nagata & Swisher, 1995; Nagata, 1997; Sanz, 2004; Sanz & Short, 2004), but they have failed to reach a consensus regarding the effectiveness of feedback within this context.
This dissertation explored possible reasons for these conflicting finding and to address the need for additional research on the relative effectiveness of feedback types examining the effects of two different types of feedback (text enhancement and metalinguistic information) on the improvement of learner performance of three uses of the Spanish preterite and imperfect (preterite with achievements, imperfect with state verbs, and imperfect with activity verbs). Eighty seven native speakers of English enrolled in a fourth semester Spanish course at a large public university in the United States were randomly assigned to one of four groups, of which two groups received corrective feedback (metalinguistic or text enhancement) as part of the treatment task, one group performed the treatment task but receive no type of corrective feedback, and one group will served as a control group who performs only the pretest and posttest assessments. All participants completed a pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest that consisted of language production task (structured video retelling) and a time-controlled language recognition task (binary choice). The treatment groups also completed 42 task-essential multiple choice items for which they selected the verb that best completes the sentence. Feedback was supplied immediately following each response.
Analysis of the pretest/posttest measures revealed that text enhancement resulted in significant improvement for both the production and the recognition task, but only for state verbs. This finding is interpreted in relation to Pienemannís Teachability Hypothesis (1984) and suggests that learner readiness to acquire a syntactic structure may play an important role in the effectiveness of feedback. In addition, both feedback groups exhibited a decrease in gains from immediate posttest to delayed posttest, suggesting that there are limits to long-term effects of corrective feedback.
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