Type of Document Dissertation Author Kane, Kristen Leigh Author's Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-05272008-105417 Title An Examination into the Temporal Patterning of Emotions, Cognitions, and Coping Strategies in Instrumental Performers Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Gershon Tenenbaum Committee Chair Alexander Jimenez Committee Member Alysia Roehrig Committee Member Robert Eklund Committee Member Keywords
- Performance Anxiety
Date of Defense 2008-05-16 Availability unrestricted AbstractIn the last two decades, the link between emotions and performance has received increased attention (Hanin, 2000a). While competitive anxiety has been examined in the domain of sport, performance anxiety has also been investigated in the performing arts (Kirchner, 2002; Tamborrino, 2001; Wilson, 1997). Researchers have attempted to identify effective coping strategies to manage these symptoms to prevent negative behavioral consequences (Salmon, Schrodt, & Wright, 1989; Steptoe, 1989; Wolfe, 1990). Although there is a great deal of research considering coping with emotions in sport and exercise (Fenz, 1976; Holt & Hogg, 2002; Marks, 2000; Yoo, 2001), studies considering performing artists have been poorly designed and implemented (Brodsky, 1996). Relatively few investigators have examined a performer’s experience with anxiety beyond a description of the phenomenon. Lazarus’ (1999) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory of emotion is applicable to stressful situations, such as performance. The CMR theory was used as a framework to study emotions, cognitions, self-control, and coping strategies during solo and ensemble performance timelines in a college-aged sample. This study addressed previously identified needs in the current literature such as the timeline for study, differences between experience levels, and gender differences. This study was intended to examine temporal patterns of emotions, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies in musicians within a larger conceptual framework.
A mixed methods design was utilized to employ qualitative interview data as well as quantitative analysis. The study included questionnaires given a week, a day, an hour, 5 minutes before, immediately after, and one week after a solo and ensemble performance. The questionnaires included: Demographic Information, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 revised version, Affect Grid, Perceived Performance Questionnaire, The Multiple Situations’ Behaviors Questionnaire, and the Emotion Identification Inventory. These questionnaires measured the constructs of anxiety, arousal, pleasure, perceived performance, self-control, and emotions. A qualitative interview was conducted a week after performance to assess the above mentioned constructs, coping strategies, and as a method of triangulation.
As expected, solo performance elicited more cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, emotional intensity, and negative emotions than ensemble performance. Debilitative emotions were also experienced with greater intensity for solo performance than for ensemble performance. Furthermore, less pleasantness, positive emotions, and self-confidence were reported for solo performance. Performers also reported utilizing more problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies to manage their emotional state prior to and during solo performance. However, there was only a significant increase in arousal in the week before performance. The quantitative results of the current study revealed few differences in experience level. The significant differences, however, were not in the hypothesized direction. For example, HEP consistently experienced less pleasantness than LEP. However, interview analysis revealed that HEP reported more negative emotions than LEP throughout both solo and ensemble performance timelines, but utilized less coping strategies. Interestingly, LEP reported experiencing mixed emotions, and more coping strategy utilization.
Differences between males and females were in line with previous research. Males reported more self-confidence, more pleasantness, and higher perceptions of performance than females. They also experienced less negative emotions and emotional intensity. As predicted, females reported utilizing primarily emotion-focused coping strategies. However, males employed both types of strategies equally. There were no differences in self-control use between experience levels or genders. All performers utilized a combination of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, reflecting the closed system of self-control.
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