Type of Document Dissertation Author Connolly, Cathleen Teresa URN etd-06042007-130803 Title Attentional Strategies and Their Relationship with Perceived Exertion and Flow Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Gary Peterson Committee Co-Chair Gershon Tenenbaum Committee Co-Chair Donald Kelly Committee Member Lynn Panton Committee Member Keywords
- Perceived Exertion
- Attentional Strategies
Date of Defense 2006-06-20 Availability unrestricted AbstractA study was designed to explore a proposed conceptual scheme linking the concepts of perceived exertion, flow, and the attention strategies of association and dissociation. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) examine whether attention allocation would vary as a function of perceived effort, 2) examine if flow would vary as a function of attention allocation, and 3) examine if flow would vary as a function of perceived effort. Sixty high school and collegiate rowers were recruited to participant in the rowing ergometer task. Participants were divided into 30 experienced (15 males and 15 females) and 30 novice rowers (15 males and 15 females) based on years of experience.
After establishing a maximal power output, participants were asked to row at 30%, 50%, and 75% workload intensities for 10 minutes. At each minute, measures of heart rate, attention, and perceived exertion were taken. After completion of all sessions, participants completed the Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2), commitment checks, and recorded their thoughts.
Results demonstrated that: 1) as workload increased, perceived exertion and heart rates significantly increased, and attention significantly shifted from dissociation to association; 2) as workload increased, endorsement of the nine flow dimensions also changed. Merging of action and awareness, sense of control, and clear goals were felt more intensely during lower levels of perceived exertion and dissociation, while total concentration and challenge-skill balance were more highly endorsed during higher levels of perceived exertion and association. 3) Males and females did not differ in their use of attention as workload increased. In regards to flow, females reported higher global flow at the highest workloads, while males reported higher global flow at the 30% workload. 4) In regards to experience, novice and experienced rowers did not significantly differ in attention allocation or flow experience as workload increased.
Results lend support for the proposed conceptual model in that a relationship did exist between perceived exertion, attention allocation, and flow. Both attention allocation and endorsement of the nine flow dimensions shifted as workload and perceived exertion increased. Future research should further examine the conceptual model in different settings and activities.
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