Type of Document Dissertation Author Tashman, Lauren S. Author's Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-07072010-121004 Title Be a Performance Enhancement Consultant: Enhancing the Training of Student Sport Psychology Consultants using Expert Models Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Gershon Tenenbaum Committee Chair David Eccles Committee Member Robert C. Eklund Committee Member Kathleen Burnett University Representative Keywords
- Sport Psychology
- Performance Enhancement
- Case-based Instruction
- Performance Psychology
- Expert Performance
Date of Defense 2010-05-28 Availability unrestricted AbstractBinder (1999) suggested that interactive, multimedia-training activities could be used to fill the gap between coursework and supervised practicum experiences. Consistent with this idea, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate a computer-training program that combines case-based instruction, self-evaluation, and models as feedback. Case-based instruction gives learners practice with applying their knowledge in real-world situations (Mayo, 2002), situating the learning in the context in which it will be used (Williams, 1992). Thus, learners become more flexible and effective in transferring and applying their knowledge in a variety of situations, and are better able to build adaptive expertise. Adaptive experts are more effectively able to think and act flexibly and appropriately, handle uncertainty, and build understandings for new experiences (Fazey, Fazey, & Fazey, 2005).
Thirty-four sport psychology graduate students participated in the study, and responded to four sets of two performance-consulting scenarios. Participants outlined for each scenario the additional information they would want in the situation, and how they might handle the situation. Half of the participants then viewed other sport psychology graduate studentsí responses, while the other half viewed experienced professionalsí responses. Participants were also assessed on their self-efficacy before and after viewing the models and ratings of comparisons with the models. Participants were subsequently asked to comment on the usefulness of the program and the models.
The results of the study provided only limited support for the idea that viewing experienced professionalsí models would be more beneficial to learning, though there was evidence of potential trends for their usefulness, particularly with respect to the participantsí written responses. This is important given that individuals with more knowledge in a domain have more elaborate mental representations, which over time enable them to develop situation awareness and adaptive expertise, resulting in more flexible and effective application of their knowledge to a wide variety of situations (Berliner, 1994; Endsley, 1995; Ericsson, 2003; Glaser, 1987; Hatano & Inagaki, 2005; Tan, 1997). Self-efficacy ratings overall did not depend on which models were viewed, but rather may be based on the previous backgrounds and experiences of the participants. Model comparison ratings also did not depend on which models were viewed, which may be due to the design of the program rather than an indication of a lack of learning. However, the results highlighted a potential trend that participants in the novice feedback group rated their responses as more comparable to the models than did participants in the expert feedback group. Overall, participants indicated that the program would be a useful addition to performance consulting training, and stated that the models, regardless of level, were a beneficial aspect of the program. Suggestions for modifications to the program are discussed in order to further enhance the usefulness of the program.
The process of sport psychology practice in the real world is not widely discussed in the field (Anderson, 2000), and learning activities need to be made available to students so that they can practice providing services to clients (Silva, Conroy, & Zizzi, 1999; Tod, Marchant, & Anderson, 2007). Therefore, the usefulness of this computer program is that it provides quality practice opportunities for graduate students in sport psychology to test out their skills, view the processes of how others approach consulting situations, and engage in reflective practice to become more self-aware and competent practitioners.
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