Type of Document Dissertation Author Buck, Clifton Stryker Author's Email Address email@example.com URN etd-07142008-164412 Title Aerosol Iron Solubility: Observations from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Oceanography, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title William Landing Committee Chair Henry Fuelberg Committee Member Joel Kostka Committee Member Thorsten Dittmar Committee Member William Burnett Committee Member Keywords
- Aerosol Solubility
- Mineral Dust
- Atlantic Ocean
- Pacific Ocean
Date of Defense 2008-06-04 Availability unrestricted AbstractLarge portions of the world ocean are less productive than they should be based on their nutrient concentrations. Dubbed high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, primary productivity in these areas may be limited by any number of factors including high zooplankton grazing rates as well as light and silicon limitation but, in general, iron (Fe) appears to most often be the factor limiting production. With approximately 30% of the world ocean comprised of Fe-limited HNLC waters, it is clear that the input of Fe to these waters, and its subsequent bioavailability, has an important role in stimulating primary productivity and lowering pCO2 possibly moderating the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and therefore could influence the planetís climate.
The work described in this dissertation represents an effort to characterize the elemental solubility, including Fe, of marine aerosols. The research was conducted on four oceanographic research cruises in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In total, over 170 aerosol samples were collected in both total and size-fractionated samples. Precipitation events were sampled when possible to characterize the wet deposition of marine aerosols. The data will constrain estimates of aerosol Fe deposition to HNLC regions and improve models of the global carbon cycle.
Elemental solubilities were measured using both seawater and ultrapure deionized water leaching methods under trace metal clean conditions. Leaching of the aerosol samples was conducted using a rapid exposure, small volume technique. Ultrapure deionized water leaches were analyzed directly by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), a relatively simple analysis technique. Soluble Fe in seawater leaches was analyzed by HR-ICP-MS following column extraction. Additionally, soluble aerosol Fe(II) was measured on four of the cruises. The sampling and analytical methods will be discussed in this dissertation and the results compared with similar studies of aerosol chemistry. The relationship between seawater and deionized water leaching was investigated to evaluate the applicability of the relatively simple ultrapure water technique to prediction of aerosol solubility in seawater. Elemental solubility behavior was analyzed within the context of a host of potential controlling factors including aerosol acidity, source region, and elemental composition among others.
The results from these research cruises suggest that aerosol Fe solubility is relatively consistent globally. The solubility of aerosol Fe in deionized water was calculated to be ~12% and ~9% in filtered surface seawater. Aerosol Fe solubility percentage showed no significant correlation with the concentration of acidic aerosol species. The episodic nature of dust events was apparent from the highly variable measured concentrations of aerosol material and no apparent first order relationship existed between the concentration of crustal aerosol species (i.e. Fe) and their respective concentrations in the surface ocean. A robust relationship was found between the concentrations of the ultrapure deionized water and seawater soluble aerosol Fe and a predictive power law equation was derived.
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