Kagisano or Social Harmony is a very important national philosophy for Botswana, mainly because the society of Botswana is characterized by ethnic diversity. Kagisano is viewed as essential for maintaining stability in such an ethnically diverse society. The junior secondary school social studies curriculum marginally covers this philosophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate junior secondary school studentsí abilities to recognize Kagisano or Social Harmony. A total of 893 students from four government junior secondary schools in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana, were sampled for the study. The break down of the sample was: 291 Form 1(Year 1) students, 289 Form 2 (Year 1) students, and 313 Form 3 (Year 3) students. A questionnaire (the same) was administered to all students in the sample. The research design was therefore, a survey. Responses of students to the questionnaire items were converted into scores. The study found that 84% of Form 3 students (research group) were successful in recognizing Kagisano or Social Harmony. All moderating (intervening) variables (school, ethnic background, age and gender) produced both consistent and inconsistent results. However, consistent results were outweighed by inconsistent results. The variable school produced the most consistent results whereas age group produced the most inconsistent results. Still on age group, age groups 17 and 18 consistently ranked lowest in the age group variable category. Thus, there was a general decline in recognition of Kagisano with increasing age. The variable gender produced results that alternated in patterns (or trends) when frequencies and/or percentages were used alternatively with the use of median scores. ANOVA showed that the moderating (intervening) variable school was statistically significant (F [3, 304] = 10.381, p = .000, p < .05). A Post Hoc Test (or post analysis) showed that the combinations of schools 1 and 4, 2 and 4, and 3 and 4 were statistically significant (p =.010, p = .000, p = .019). The rest of the combinations of schools were not statistically significant. Therefore, the moderating (intervening) variable school makes a difference in the interpretation of the results of this study. (In other words, there is a relationship between the variable school and the results of this study). ANOVA showed that the moderating (intervening) variable age group (or age) was statistically significant (F [4, 291] = 4.156, p = .003, p < .05). A Post Hoc Test showed that the combination of age groups 2 and 4, and 3 and 4 were statistically significant (p = .003, p = .008). The rest of the combinations of age groups were not statistically significant. Therefore, the moderating (intervening) variable age group (or age) makes a difference in the interpretation of the results of this study. (In other words, there is a relationship between the variable age group and the results of this study). Bakalaka, a minority ethnic group, performed as well as, and even better than, some majority ethnic groups. This indicates that ethnicity does not make a difference in recognition of Kagisano. ANOVA results for the ethnic background/group variable were not statistically significant (F [2, 242] = .571, p = .779, p > .05), including the results of a Post Hoc Test. Numerically (i.e. by frequency or percentage), the males performed better than the females (89% versus 87.5%) but the females performed better than the males in quality terms as indicated by the median scores 57.5 and 52.5, respectively. ANOVA results showed that the mean scores of the males and females were not statistically significant (F [2, 310] = 2.609, p = .075, p > .05). A Post Hoc Test showed the same results, i.e. no statistical significance for the mean scores of males and females. ANOVA also showed that the mean scores of Form/Year 1, Form/Year 2, and Form/Year 3 students in the sample were statistically significant (F [2, 890)] = 27.612, p = .000, p < .05). Post Hoc Tests showed that groups 1 and 3, and groups 2 and 3 were more statistically significant (p = .000, p <.05) than groups 1 and 2 (p = .017, p < .05). This shows that the level of instruction had more impact between groups 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 than between groups 1 and 2. Groups 1, 2 and 3 refer to those students in years 1, 2 and 3 of junior secondary education in Botswana.