The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of congruence of leadership behaviors on motivation, commitment, and satisfaction of college tennis players. Respondents (n = 245) included collegiate tennis players from all NCAA division levels (I, II, and III). The athletes were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the preferred and perceived versions of the Revised Leadership Scale for Sports, Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Commitment Model Scale, and Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The responses were collected in an online format.
Descriptive statistics were calculated for each of the demographic variables. Alpha (Cronbach) coefficients were calculated for the components of each measurement scale to verify internal consistency. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were utilized to determine the effect of demographic variables on leadership behavior preferences. In order to avoid the potential problems associated with the use of difference scores (Peter, Churchill, & Brown, 1993), a regression technique was applied to evaluate the leadership congruence hypothesis. The base scores (i.e. preferences and perceptions) were entered first followed by their interactional term (preferred x perceived). Two sets of multiple regression equations were calculated. In the first set, preference scores were entered first followed by the perceptions and the interaction term, and the second set followed a similar format but reversed the order of the preference and perception terms. The congruence hypothesis was accepted if the interaction significantly increased the amount of variance explained.
The results of this study indicated that neither gender nor ability level were predictive of preferred leadership behavior. Furthermore, the congruency of certain preferred and perceived leadership behaviors predicted intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation identified, amotivation, sport commitment, sport enjoyment, individual performance satisfaction, personal treatment satisfaction, team performance satisfaction, and training and instruction satisfaction. The findings are discussed in the context of Chelladuraiís (1999) Multidimensional Model of Leadership. Future research suggestions are forwarded.