Type of Document Dissertation Author Shy, Jonathan David Author's Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-10232008-110222 Title Expert and Novice Practitioner use of the Computer-Based Test Interpretation of the Self-Directed Search: A Qualitative Analysis. Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title James P. Sampson, Jr. Committee Co-Chair Janet Lenz Committee Co-Chair Gary Peterson Committee Member Robert Reardon Committee Member Irene Padavic Outside Committee Member Keywords
- Self-Directed Search
- Computer Based Test Interpretation
Date of Defense 2008-09-16 Availability unrestricted AbstractThis qualitative research study explored the process by which expert and novice counseling practitioners use the computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) for the Self-Directed Search (SDS).
Two groups of people were involved in the study: (a) research participants and (b) student assistants. Research participants were the focus of the study; student assistants were not measured or assessed in any way. Research participants were selected from a career center at a large southeastern university. All received some training in the use of the CBTI for the SDS prior to their participation in the study. Student assistants were selected from an undergraduate course in career development. Students in the course take the SDS and receive an interpretation of their CBTI as part of normal classroom procedures. They were invited to have their interpretation audio-recorded for the current study and were offered extra credit as an incentive. Twelve students were selected; those who wanted to assist but were not selected were still presented with an opportunity to receive extra credit.
Data collection occurred in two phases. Research participants first interpreted a CBTI for the SDS to two student assistants. These interpretations were audio-recorded. Following the interpretative events, the researcher interviewed research participants; interviews were also audio-recorded. During the interview, research participants were asked about the nature of the student participantís SDS scores and their reactions to the interpretive process.
Following the data collection procedures a professional transcription agency transcribed audio recordings. The researcher reviewed transcribed audio recordings from interpretive events and interviews for one participant and identified a preliminary coding system based on themes present in the data. Nvivo qualitative software was used to assist with this effort. The preliminary coding system went through several iterations as data from additional participants was analyzed. The characteristics of expertise identified by Glaser and Chi (1988) were used as sensitizing concepts in order to link the data analysis to relevant literature. Raw data and the preliminary coding system were presented to an auditor with knowledge of qualitative research to provide an objective opinion of the data. Feedback was received and a final coding system was identified. The final coding system consisted of a thematic hierarchy of five major categories, 12 higher order themes, and 13 lower order themes. A second auditor reviewed the final coding system and raw data to ensure the appropriateness of the data analysis.
Results revealed that experts and novices interpreted much of the same content presented in the CBTI for the SDS, but did so in different ways. Experts explained more content of the CBTI for the SDS, solicited background information, discussed resources and services, and incorporated elements from two career theories during interpretations. Experts also made decisions about: the relative importance of data, studentís career problems, and how to adjust their performance and structure the interpretive process based on the unique needs of students.
The results suggested that this studyís experts possessed more complex domain-specific schema for the interpretation of the CBTI for the SDS. These schema appeared to enable experts to examine more data, which was used to form more complex conceptualizations of studentsí career functioning.
The findings lent support to the characteristics of expertise identified by Glaser and Chi (1988), as well as for stage theories of the development of expertise identified by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). The findings were used to develop a suggested interpretive process of the interpretation of the CBTI for the SDS.
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