Type of Document Dissertation Author Kumar, Vikas URN etd-11102008-152145 Title Separation Control In Adverse Pressure Gradients Using High-Speed Microjets Degree Doctor of Philosophy Department Mechanical Engineering, Department of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Farrukh S. Alvi Committee Chair Anjaneyulu Krothapalli Committee Member Anuradha Annaswamy Committee Member Chiang Shih Committee Member Leon van Dommelen Committee Member Rajendra K. Arora Outside Committee Member Keywords
- Active Flow Control
- Pressure Velocity Correlation
- Flow Separation
Date of Defense 2008-09-19 Availability unrestricted AbstractInlets to aircraft propulsion systems must supply flow to the compressor with minimal pressure loss, flow distortion or unsteadiness. Flow separation in internal flows such as inlets and ducts in aircraft propulsion systems and external flows such as over aircraft wings, is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The objective of present study is to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore the applicability of high-speed microjets to actively control this flow separation. The geometry used for this experimental study was a generic backward facing "Stratford Ramp" equipped with arrays of high-speed microjets. The incoming flow was examined over a freestream velocity range of 10-65m/s and at ramp angle in range of 0-10 degrees. It was observed that the flow separates at 30m/s and beyond for all angle of attack. The magnitude and extent of separation bubble increases with increasing adverse pressure gradients and/or increase in free-stream velocity. The separated flow for all the examined conditions was completely attached using suitable array of high-speed microjets. The most notable fact was that elimination of reverse velocity regions was accompanied by a reduction in flow unsteadiness and increased two-dimensionality in the flow. In particular, these gains were achieved with a minimal mass flux, less than 0.2% of the primary flow based on 30% Boundary Layer Ingesting duct.
Detailed measurements were obtained to understand the flow control dynamics. The control effectiveness was found to be dependent on the actuation location with respect to separation, jet to cross-flow momentum ratio and the angle at which microjets supply the momentum. It was also determined that the control effect of the microjets, in part, is due to creation of strong stream-wise vortices which enhance the mixing between low-momentum fluid closer to the surface and high-momentum fluid further away from the surface. The penetration depth of microjets was found to be much higher than that of a jet exiting in to uniform cross-flow and correlations were developed to predict this.
Subsequently, means for identification of the flow conditions were sought to develop a simple, robust, complete control strategy. It was observed that the flow conditions were very well represented in unsteady surface pressure measurements. The unsteady surface pressure and velocity field were correlated to develop a simple scheme to predict the peak unsteadiness location over the surface. The results from this model and knowledge of microjet in cross flow was used to provide guidelines for an active control strategy. A case study was then undertaken to validate the results obtained using the model. The results show that the model is a good first step towards developing a simple, robust, active-adaptive separation control strategy using microjets.
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