Type of Document Treatise Author Ishii, Reiko Author's Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org URN etd-11142005-064729 Title The Development of Extended Piano Techniques in Twentieth-Century American Music Degree Doctor of Musical Arts Department Music, College of Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Carolyn Bridger Committee Chair Denise Von Glahn Committee Member James Nalley Committee Member Karyl Louwenaar Committee Member Keywords
- Prepared Piano
- Tone Clusters
- Experimental Music
- Bowed Piano
Date of Defense 2005-11-08 Availability unrestricted AbstractThis treatise traces the development of extended techniques for the piano through a study of selected piano works by American composers of the twentieth century, and examines the technical and interpretive challenges of playing these works. It also discusses how extended techniques reflect changing musical values and aesthetics throughout the century.
During the twentieth century, a significant development and expansion of sonorous possibilities of traditional instruments has occurred. The term extended technique is commonly used to describe an unconventional technique of playing a musical instrument. Extended techniques are found not only in piano music but throughout other instrumental repertoire. Among other instruments, the piano has shown a surprising capacity for innovation in producing new sound. Composers have made new demands on pianists both technically and musically, bringing not only compositional and technical innovations to piano music, but also a fundamental change to the concept of music.
This study explores four important classifications of extended piano techniques: 1) special effects produced on the keyboard, 2) performance inside the piano, 3) performance inside the piano with one hand and on the keyboard with the other, and 4) addition of foreign materials.
First, the author shows the advent of these techniques through an examination of piano works composed before 1960 and how extended techniques are related to the conceptual changes of music. Then, piano works composed during the 1960s and 1970s are investigated to explain how these techniques diversified. This era was full of new ideas and musical resources, and the new musical concepts of this time were reflected in extended techniques. Finally, the author examines piano works composed during the 1980s and 1990s to indicate how composers integrate sounds produced by extended techniques into sounds played in a conventional manner. This era has seen a noticeable change in musical values which seems to be reflected in extended techniques.
This treatise reveals that the evolution of extended techniques is closely associated with the development of twentieth-century music, reflecting changing musical values throughout the century.
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